The use of computational QSAR analysis in the toxicological evaluation of a series of 2-pyridylcarboxamidrazone candidate anti-tuberculosis compounds

MD Coleman*, Katy J. Tims, Daniel L. Rathbone

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A series of N1-benzylidene pyridine-2-carboxamidrazone anti-tuberculosis compounds has been evaluated for their cytotoxicity using human mononuclear leucocytes (MNL) as target cells. All eight compounds were significantly more toxic than dimethyl sulphoxide control and isoniazid (INH) with the exception of a 4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethyloxy) derivative, which was not significantly different in toxicity compared with INH. The most toxic agent was an ethoxy derivative, followed by 3-nitro, 4-methoxy, dimethylpropyl, 4-methylbenzyloxy, 3-methoxy-4-(-2-phenylethyloxy) and 4-benzyloxy in rank order. In comparison with the effect of selected carboxamidrazone agents on cells alone, the presence of either N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or glutathione caused a significant reduction in the toxicity of INH, as well as on the 4-benzyloxy derivative, although both increased the toxicity of a 4-N,N-dimethylamino-1-naphthylidene and a 2-t-butylthio derivative. The derivatives from this and three previous studies were subjected to computational analysis in order to derive equations designed to establish quantitative structure activity relationships for these agents. Twenty-five compounds were thus resolved into two groups (1 and 2), which on analysis yielded equations with r2 values in the range 0.65-0.92. Group 1 shares a common mode of toxicity related to hydrophobicity, where cytotoxicity peaked at logP of 3.2, while Group 2 toxicity was strongly related to ionisation potential. The presence of thiols such as NAC and GSH both promoted and attenuated toxicity in selected compounds from Group 1, suggesting that secondary mechanisms of toxicity were operating. These studies will facilitate the design of future low toxicity high activity anti-tubercular carboxamidrazone agents. © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33-42
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Volume14
Issue number1-2
Early online date28 Mar 2003
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2003

Fingerprint

Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship
Poisons
Toxicology
Cysteine
Toxicity
Tuberculosis
Mononuclear Leukocytes
Isoniazid
Dimethyl Sulfoxide
Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
Sulfhydryl Compounds
Derivatives
Acetylcysteine
Cytotoxicity
N-acetylglutathione
Ionization potential
Hydrophobicity
pyridine

Keywords

  • 2-Pyridylcarboxamidrazone
  • anti-tubercular
  • QSAR analysis
  • toxicological evaluation

Cite this

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title = "The use of computational QSAR analysis in the toxicological evaluation of a series of 2-pyridylcarboxamidrazone candidate anti-tuberculosis compounds",
abstract = "A series of N1-benzylidene pyridine-2-carboxamidrazone anti-tuberculosis compounds has been evaluated for their cytotoxicity using human mononuclear leucocytes (MNL) as target cells. All eight compounds were significantly more toxic than dimethyl sulphoxide control and isoniazid (INH) with the exception of a 4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethyloxy) derivative, which was not significantly different in toxicity compared with INH. The most toxic agent was an ethoxy derivative, followed by 3-nitro, 4-methoxy, dimethylpropyl, 4-methylbenzyloxy, 3-methoxy-4-(-2-phenylethyloxy) and 4-benzyloxy in rank order. In comparison with the effect of selected carboxamidrazone agents on cells alone, the presence of either N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or glutathione caused a significant reduction in the toxicity of INH, as well as on the 4-benzyloxy derivative, although both increased the toxicity of a 4-N,N-dimethylamino-1-naphthylidene and a 2-t-butylthio derivative. The derivatives from this and three previous studies were subjected to computational analysis in order to derive equations designed to establish quantitative structure activity relationships for these agents. Twenty-five compounds were thus resolved into two groups (1 and 2), which on analysis yielded equations with r2 values in the range 0.65-0.92. Group 1 shares a common mode of toxicity related to hydrophobicity, where cytotoxicity peaked at logP of 3.2, while Group 2 toxicity was strongly related to ionisation potential. The presence of thiols such as NAC and GSH both promoted and attenuated toxicity in selected compounds from Group 1, suggesting that secondary mechanisms of toxicity were operating. These studies will facilitate the design of future low toxicity high activity anti-tubercular carboxamidrazone agents. {\circledC} 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.",
keywords = "2-Pyridylcarboxamidrazone, anti-tubercular, QSAR analysis, toxicological evaluation",
author = "MD Coleman and Tims, {Katy J.} and Rathbone, {Daniel L.}",
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T1 - The use of computational QSAR analysis in the toxicological evaluation of a series of 2-pyridylcarboxamidrazone candidate anti-tuberculosis compounds

AU - Coleman, MD

AU - Tims, Katy J.

AU - Rathbone, Daniel L.

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N2 - A series of N1-benzylidene pyridine-2-carboxamidrazone anti-tuberculosis compounds has been evaluated for their cytotoxicity using human mononuclear leucocytes (MNL) as target cells. All eight compounds were significantly more toxic than dimethyl sulphoxide control and isoniazid (INH) with the exception of a 4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethyloxy) derivative, which was not significantly different in toxicity compared with INH. The most toxic agent was an ethoxy derivative, followed by 3-nitro, 4-methoxy, dimethylpropyl, 4-methylbenzyloxy, 3-methoxy-4-(-2-phenylethyloxy) and 4-benzyloxy in rank order. In comparison with the effect of selected carboxamidrazone agents on cells alone, the presence of either N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or glutathione caused a significant reduction in the toxicity of INH, as well as on the 4-benzyloxy derivative, although both increased the toxicity of a 4-N,N-dimethylamino-1-naphthylidene and a 2-t-butylthio derivative. The derivatives from this and three previous studies were subjected to computational analysis in order to derive equations designed to establish quantitative structure activity relationships for these agents. Twenty-five compounds were thus resolved into two groups (1 and 2), which on analysis yielded equations with r2 values in the range 0.65-0.92. Group 1 shares a common mode of toxicity related to hydrophobicity, where cytotoxicity peaked at logP of 3.2, while Group 2 toxicity was strongly related to ionisation potential. The presence of thiols such as NAC and GSH both promoted and attenuated toxicity in selected compounds from Group 1, suggesting that secondary mechanisms of toxicity were operating. These studies will facilitate the design of future low toxicity high activity anti-tubercular carboxamidrazone agents. © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

AB - A series of N1-benzylidene pyridine-2-carboxamidrazone anti-tuberculosis compounds has been evaluated for their cytotoxicity using human mononuclear leucocytes (MNL) as target cells. All eight compounds were significantly more toxic than dimethyl sulphoxide control and isoniazid (INH) with the exception of a 4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethyloxy) derivative, which was not significantly different in toxicity compared with INH. The most toxic agent was an ethoxy derivative, followed by 3-nitro, 4-methoxy, dimethylpropyl, 4-methylbenzyloxy, 3-methoxy-4-(-2-phenylethyloxy) and 4-benzyloxy in rank order. In comparison with the effect of selected carboxamidrazone agents on cells alone, the presence of either N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or glutathione caused a significant reduction in the toxicity of INH, as well as on the 4-benzyloxy derivative, although both increased the toxicity of a 4-N,N-dimethylamino-1-naphthylidene and a 2-t-butylthio derivative. The derivatives from this and three previous studies were subjected to computational analysis in order to derive equations designed to establish quantitative structure activity relationships for these agents. Twenty-five compounds were thus resolved into two groups (1 and 2), which on analysis yielded equations with r2 values in the range 0.65-0.92. Group 1 shares a common mode of toxicity related to hydrophobicity, where cytotoxicity peaked at logP of 3.2, while Group 2 toxicity was strongly related to ionisation potential. The presence of thiols such as NAC and GSH both promoted and attenuated toxicity in selected compounds from Group 1, suggesting that secondary mechanisms of toxicity were operating. These studies will facilitate the design of future low toxicity high activity anti-tubercular carboxamidrazone agents. © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

KW - 2-Pyridylcarboxamidrazone

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