The use of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) as a spray-drying excipient in the preparation of inhalable formulations of proteins was investigated, using alkaline phosphatase as a model functional protein. Two spray-dried powders were investigated: a control powder comprising 100% (w/w) alkaline phosphatase and a test powder comprising 67% (w/w) NaCMC and 33% (w/w) alkaline phosphatase. Following physicochemical characterisation, the powders were prepared as both dry powder inhaler (DPI) and pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) formulations. The aerosolisation performance of the formulations was assessed using a Multi-Stage Liquid Impinger, both immediately after preparation and over a 16-week storage period. Formulating the control powder as a DPI resulted in a poor fine particle fraction (FPF: 10%), whereas the FPF of the NaCMC-modified DPI formulation was significantly greater (47%). When the powders were formulated as pMDI systems, the control and NaCMC-modified powders demonstrated FPFs of 52% and 55%, respectively. Following storage, reduced FPF was observed for all formulations except the NaCMC-modified pMDI system; the performance of this formulation following storage was statistically equivalent to that immediately following preparation. Co-spray-drying proteins and peptides with NaCMC may therefore offer an alternative method for the preparation of stable and respirable pMDI formulations for pulmonary delivery.
- sodium carboxymethylcellulose