The research is concerned with thermochemical characterisation of straws and high yielding perennial grasses. Crops selected for this study include wheat straw (Triticum aestivum), rape straw (Brassica napus), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) and switch grass (Panicum virgatum). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to examine the distribution of char and volatiles during pyrolysis up to 900 °C. Utilising multi-heating rate thermogravimetric data, the Friedman iso-conversional kinetic method was used to determine pyrolysis kinetic parameters. Light and medium volatile decomposition products were investigated using pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Py–GC–MS) up to 520 °C. The 22 highest yielding identifiable cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin biomass markers were semi-quantified taking into consideration peak areas from GC chromatograms. Notable differences can be seen in butanedioic acid, dimethyl ester (hemicelluloses decomposition products), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (lignin marker) and levoglucosan (intermediate pyrolytic decomposition product of cellulose) content when comparing perennial grasses with straw. From results presented in this study, perennial grasses such as switch grass, have the most attractive properties for fast pyrolysis processing. This is because of the observed high volatile yield content of 82.23%, heating value of 19.64 MJ/kg and the relatively low inorganic content.
- thermogravimetric analysis
Greenhalf, C., Nowakowski, D., Bridgwater, A., Titiloye, J., Yates, N., Riche, A., & Shield, I. (2012). Thermochemical characterisation of straws and high yielding perennial grasses. Industrial Crops and Products, 36(1), 449-459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.10.025