Towards a web-based progressive handwriting recognition environment for mathematical problem solving

Ba-Quy Vuong, Yulan He, Siu C. Hui

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The emergence of pen-based mobile devices such as PDAs and tablet PCs provides a new way to input mathematical expressions to computer by using handwriting which is much more natural and efficient for entering mathematics. This paper proposes a web-based handwriting mathematics system, called WebMath, for supporting mathematical problem solving. The proposed WebMath system is based on client-server architecture. It comprises four major components: a standard web server, handwriting mathematical expression editor, computation engine and web browser with Ajax-based communicator. The handwriting mathematical expression editor adopts a progressive recognition approach for dynamic recognition of handwritten mathematical expressions. The computation engine supports mathematical functions such as algebraic simplification and factorization, and integration and differentiation. The web browser provides a user-friendly interface for accessing the system using advanced Ajax-based communication. In this paper, we describe the different components of the WebMath system and its performance analysis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)886-893
Number of pages8
JournalExpert Systems with Applications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2010

Bibliographical note

NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Expert systems with applications. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Vuong, B-Q, He, Y & Hui, SC, 'Towards a web-based progressive handwriting recognition environment for mathematical problem solving' Expert systems with applications, vol. 37, no. 1 (2010) DOI


  • progressive handwriting recognition
  • progressive structural analysis
  • web-based handwriting mathematics system
  • WebMath
  • client–server architecture with Ajax-based communication


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