Training and performance in SMEs: Empirical evidence from large-scale data from the UK

Bochra Idris*, George Saridakis, Stewart Johnstone

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article examines the link between training and (perceived) actual/intended performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the UK. We use the UK’s 2015 Small Business Survey containing large-scale data from more than 15,000 owner-managers of SMEs. Using the ordered probit analysis to test our hypothesis, we find that there is a positive and significant relationship between training and SMEs’ performance. When differentiating between training according to its type, we find that on-the-job and off-the-job training are positively and significantly related to performance; however, when these types of training are received simultaneously, the combined association becomes stronger than their individual effects.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Small Business Management
Early online date19 Oct 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 19 Oct 2020

Bibliographical note

This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis Group in Journal of Small Business Management on 19 Oct 2020, available online at:


  • SMEs
  • intended performance
  • off-the-job training
  • on-the-job training
  • perceived actual performance


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