Transglutaminases: nature's biological glues

Martin Griffin, Rita Casadio, Carlo M. Bergamini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Transglutaminases (Tgases) are a widely distributed group of enzymes that catalyse the post-translational modification of proteins by the formation of isopeptide bonds. This occurs either through protein cross-linking via epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine bonds or through incorporation of primary amines at selected peptide-bound glutamine residues. The cross-linked products, often of high molecular mass, are highly resistant to mechanical challenge and proteolytic degradation, and their accumulation is found in a number of tissues and processes where such properties are important, including skin, hair, blood clotting and wound healing. However, deregulation of enzyme activity generally associated with major disruptions in cellular homoeostatic mechanisms has resulted in these enzymes contributing to a number of human diseases, including chronic neurodegeneration, neoplastic diseases, autoimmune diseases, diseases involving progressive tissue fibrosis and diseases related to the epidermis of the skin. In the present review we detail the structural and regulatory features important in mammalian Tgases, with particular focus on the ubiquitous type 2 tissue enzyme. Physiological roles and substrates are discussed with a view to increasing and understanding the pathogenesis of the diseases associated with transglutaminases. Moreover the ability of these enzymes to modify proteins and act as biological glues has not gone unnoticed by the commercial sector. As a consequence, we have included some of the present and future biotechnological applications of this increasingly important group of enzymes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)377-396
Number of pages20
JournalBiochemical Journal
Volume368
Issue numberPt 2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2002

Fingerprint

Transglutaminases
Glues
Adhesives
Enzymes
Tissue
Skin
Proteins
Deregulation
Enzyme activity
Molecular mass
Blood Coagulation
Post Translational Protein Processing
Glutamine
Epidermis
Wound Healing
Hair
Autoimmune Diseases
Amines
Fibrosis
Blood

Keywords

  • biotechnology
  • diseases
  • extracellular matrix
  • enzymes
  • protein cross-links

Cite this

Griffin, Martin ; Casadio, Rita ; Bergamini, Carlo M. / Transglutaminases : nature's biological glues. In: Biochemical Journal. 2002 ; Vol. 368, No. Pt 2. pp. 377-396.
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Griffin, M, Casadio, R & Bergamini, CM 2002, 'Transglutaminases: nature's biological glues', Biochemical Journal, vol. 368, no. Pt 2, pp. 377-396. https://doi.org/10.1042/BJ20021234

Transglutaminases : nature's biological glues. / Griffin, Martin; Casadio, Rita; Bergamini, Carlo M.

In: Biochemical Journal, Vol. 368, No. Pt 2, 01.12.2002, p. 377-396.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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