An inverse turbulent cascade in a restricted two-dimensional periodic domain creates a condensate—a pair of coherent system-size vortices. We perform extensive numerical simulations of this system and carry out theoretical analysis based on momentum and energy exchanges between the turbulence and the vortices. We show that the vortices have a universal internal structure independent of the type of small-scale dissipation, small-scale forcing, and boundary conditions. The theory predicts not only the vortex inner region profile, but also the amplitude, which both perfectly agree with the numerical data.
Laurie, J., Boffetta, G., Falkovich, G., Kolokolov, I., & Lebedev, V. (2014). Universal profile of the vortex condensate in two-dimensional turbulence. Physical Review Letters, 113(25), . https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.254503