We present a theoretical and experimental investigation of unrepeatered transmission over standard single-mode fiber (SMF-28) using several schemes of distributed Raman amplification, including first, second, and dual order. In order to further extend the transmission distance, we utilize advanced bidirectional higher-order ultra-long Raman fiber laser-based amplification, where we use fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) to reflect Stokes-shifted light from the secondary pumps. Our work demonstrates the possibility of transmission up to 240-km span length with a total span loss of 52.7 dB. Here, we use a 28-Gbaud signal using a 64-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) modulation format. Our results highlight the contribution of nonlinear compensation using digital back propagation in a digital signal processor (DSP) code at the receiver.
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- Digital backpropagation
- Distributed raman amplification
- Unrepeatered 64-QAM transmission