Update and guidance on management of myopia. European Society of Ophthalmology in cooperation with International Myopia Institute

János Németh, Beáta Tapasztó, Wagih A Aclimandos, Philippe Kestelyn, Jost B Jonas, Jan-Tjeerd H N De Faber, Ingrida Januleviciene, Andrzej Grzybowski, Zoltán Zsolt Nagy, Olavi Pärssinen, Jeremy A Guggenheim, Peter M Allen, Rigmor C Baraas, Kathryn J Saunders, Daniel Ian Flitcroft, Lyle S Gray, Jan Roelof Polling, Annechien EG Haarman, J Willem L Tideman, James Stuart WolffsohnSiegfried Wahl, Jeroen A Mulder, Irina Yurievna Smirnova, Marino Formenti, Hema Radhakrishnan, Serge Resnikoff

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The prevalence of myopia is increasing extensively worldwide. The number of people with myopia in 2020 is predicted to be 2.6 billion globally, which is expected to rise up to 4.9 billion by 2050, unless preventive actions and interventions are taken. The number of individuals with high myopia is also increasing substantially and pathological myopia is predicted to become the most common cause of irreversible vision impairment and blindness worldwide and also in Europe. These prevalence estimates indicate the importance of reducing the burden of myopia by means of myopia control interventions to prevent myopia onset and to slow down myopia progression. Due to the urgency of the situation, the European Society of Ophthalmology decided to publish this update of the current information and guidance on management of myopia. The pathogenesis and genetics of myopia are also summarized and epidemiology, risk factors, preventive and treatment options are discussed in details.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)853-883
Number of pages31
JournalEuropean Journal of Ophthalmology
Issue number3
Early online date5 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - May 2021

Bibliographical note

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).


  • Myopia
  • atropine
  • blindness
  • myopia reduction interventions
  • orthokeratology
  • pathologic myopia
  • preventive medicine
  • time spent outdoors


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