Usability and User Experience of Mobile Applications: A Case of Functional Illiterates in Nigeria

Khadijah Danjuma Mohammed, Victoria Uren, Sian Joel-Edgar, Priscilla Omonedo

Research output: Chapter in Book/Published conference outputConference publication


Despite the challenges faced by functional illiterates (FXI) when using smartphones, usability studies of mobile applications for FXI in Nigeria are still lacking in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) research. To address this gap, we conducted a mixed (quantitative and qualitative) user study with FXI users to explore their experiences using current mobile applications for banking and shopping. Our study uses a digital skills framework (DLGF) with usability and user experience (UX) metrics to investigate user interaction, providing a novel approach to understanding users’ capabilities in HCI research. Triangulating interview data with both applications' user interface (UI) data, we found that FXI users encountered challenges in certain tasks but not all. Our findings revealed below-average UX ratings of the current mobile applications compared to established benchmarks. These findings contribute to an emerging discussion about designing more inclusive and accessible UIs. We propose that using the DLGF in usability studies can provide a more comprehensive view to all stakeholders in accessibility research.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationACM AfriCHI'23
Subtitle of host publication4th African Human Computer Interaction Conference
Publication statusPublished - 27 Nov 2023
Event4th African Human Computer Interaction Conference - South Africa
Duration: 27 Nov 20231 Dec 2023


Conference4th African Human Computer Interaction Conference
Abbreviated titleACM AfriCHI'23
Internet address

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2023 Copyright held by the owner/author(s). Publication rights licensed to ACM. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution International 4.0 License [].


  • Functional illiterates
  • HCI4D
  • Mobile applications
  • Low-literates


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