Utilisation of poultry industry wastes for liquid biofuel production via thermal and catalytic fast pyrolysis

Ismail Cem Kantarli*, Stylianos D. Stefanidis, Konstantinos G. Kalogiannis, Angelos A. Lappas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The objective of this study was to examine the potential of poultry wastes to be used as feedstock in non-catalytic and catalytic fast pyrolysis processes, which is a continuation of our previous research on their conversion into biofuel via slow pyrolysis and hydrothermal conversion. Both poultry meal and poultry litter were examined, initially in a fixed bed bench-scale reactor using ZSM-5 and MgO as catalysts. Pyrolysis of poultry meal yielded high amounts of bio-oil, while pyrolysis of poultry litter yielded high amounts of solid residue owing to its high ash content. MgO was found to be more effective for the deoxygenation of bio-oil and reduction of undesirable compounds, by converting mainly the acids in the pyrolysis vapours of poultry meal into aliphatic hydrocarbons. ZSM-5 favoured the formation of both aromatic compounds and undesirable nitrogenous compounds. Overall, all bio-oil samples from the pyrolysis of poultry wastes contained relatively high amounts of nitrogen compared with bio-oils from lignocellulosic biomass, ca. 9 wt.% in the case of poultry meal and ca. 5–8 wt.% in the case of poultry litter. This was attributed to the high nitrogen content of the poultry wastes, unlike that of lignocellulosic biomass. Poultry meal yielded the highest amount of bio-oil and was selected as optimum feedstock to be scaled-up in a semi-pilot scale fluidised bed biomass pyrolysis unit with the ZSM-5 catalyst. Pyrolysis in the fluidised bed reactor was more efficient for deoxygenation of the bio-oil vapours, as evidenced from the lower oxygen content of the bio-oil.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)157-167
Number of pages11
JournalWaste Management and Research
Issue number2
Early online date25 Sep 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019


  • Bio-oil
  • catalytic upgrading
  • deoxygenation
  • fast pyrolysis
  • MgO
  • poultry litter
  • poultry meal
  • ZSM-5


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