Validation of the Spanish version of the Low Vision Quality of Life Questionnaire

Luis Pérez-Mañá, Genis Cardona*, Yolanda Pardo-Cladellas, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Jaume Amorós-Martínez, Luis González-Sanchís, James S. Wolffsohn, Alfonso Antón

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To validate the Spanish Low Vision Qualify of Life (SLVQOL) questionnaire, a quality of life instrument specifically designed for patients with visual impairment, and evaluate its psychometric properties. Methods: The study included 170 visually impaired patients and 195 healthy subjects. Participants were administered the SLVQOL, the NEI VFQ-25, and the EQ 5D-5L questionnaires. Reliability, test–retest reproducibility, feasibility, and construct validity of the SLVQOL were assessed. The Generalized Partial Credit Model was used to fit the data and the performance of each item was characterized using category response curves and item information. Results: The reliability of the SLVQOL was 0.981 (95% CI: 0.978–0.985). Test–retest reproducibility was good (ρ = 0.864, P < .001). A cut-off point of 105 or 106 was optimal to detect visual impairment, with a sensitivity of 95.4% and a specificity of 91.8%. Construct validity was shown by the corresponding convergence or divergence correlations between the score of the SLVQOL and its dimensions and the overall and partial scores of the NEI VFQ-25 and the EQ 5D-5L. Item response theory analysis showed discrimination and information parameters ranging from 0.539 to 3.063 and from −1.894 to 1.074, respectively. Conclusion: The SLVQOL was able to quantitatively assess and identify differences in the quality of life among patients with visual impairment and normal subjects. The evaluated psychometric properties suggest that this tool has excellent validity, internal consistency, and reproducibility, but may benefit from a reduction of the number of items.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199-209
JournalJournal of Optometry
Issue number3
Early online date18 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

© 2021 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espa ̃na, S.L.U. This is an open access article under the CCBY-NC-ND license (


  • Generalized Partial Credit Model
  • Item response theory
  • Low vision
  • Patient reported outcomes
  • Psychometric properties
  • Quality of life
  • Validation


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