Visual dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

Richard A. Armstrong*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Published conference outputChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review


This chapter describes the visual problems likely to be encountered in Parkinson's disease (PD) and whether such signs are useful in differentiating the parkinsonian syndromes. Visual dysfunction in PD may involve visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color discrimination, pupil reactivity, saccadic and pursuit eye movements, motion perception, visual fields, and visual processing speeds. In addition, disturbance of visuospatial orientation, facial recognition problems, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder, and chronic visual hallucinations may be present. Problems affecting pupil reactivity, stereopsis, pursuit eye movement, and visuomotor adaptation, when accompanied by REM sleep behavior disorder, could be early features of PD. Dementia associated with PD is associated with enhanced eye movement problems, visuospatial deficits, and visual hallucinations. Visual dysfunction may be a useful diagnostic feature in differentiating PD from other parkinsonian symptoms, visual hallucinations, visuospatial dysfunction, and variation in saccadic eye movement problems being particularly useful discriminating features.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationParkinson's disease
EditorsKailash P. Bhatia, K. Ray Chaudhuri, Maria Stamelou
PublisherAcademic Press
ISBN (Print)978-0-12-809714-4
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Publication series

NameInternational Review of Neurobiology
PublisherAcademic Press
ISSN (Print)0074-7742


  • differential diagnosis
  • eye movement
  • Parkinson's disease dementia
  • Parkinsonian syndromes
  • visual dysfunction
  • visual hallucinations


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