Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are common in developing countries, but also occur in developed countries. We review micronutrient deficiencies for the major vitamins A, cobalamin (B-12), biotin (vitamin H), vitamins C and E, as well as the minerals iron, and zinc, in the developed world, in terms of their relationship to systemic health and any resulting ocular disease and/or visual dysfunction. A knowledge of these effects is important as individuals with consequent poor ocular health and reduced visual function may present for ophthalmic care.
- vitamin A
- vitamin C
- vitamin E
Whatham, A., Bartlett, H. E., Eperjesi, F., Blumenthal, C., Allen, J., Suttle, C., & Gaskin, K. (2008). Vitamin and mineral deficiencies in the developed world and their effect on the eye and vision. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 28(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-1313.2007.00531.x