An optical in-fiber modal interferometer-based volume strain sensor for earthquake prediction is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensing element is formed by wrapping a multimode-singlemode-multimode fiber structure onto a polyurethane hollow column. Due to the modal interference between the excited guided modes in the fiber, strong interference pattern could be observed in the transmission spectrum. Theoretical analysis verifies that the resonant wavelength shifts as a result of the volume strain variation caused by the column deformation with square root relationship. Sensitivity > 3.93 pm/με within the volume strain ranging from 0 to 1300 με is also experimentally demonstrated. By taking the response of bidirectional change of volume strain and the sluggish character of the employed sensing material into consideration, the sensing system presents good repeatability and stability.
- Modal interferometer
- multimode-singlemode-multimode fiber structure
- optical fiber sensor
- volume strain sensing