A study of magnetic non-linearity and finite length effects in solid iron subjected to a travelling MMF wave

  • Alan L. Bowden

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


This thesis describes an experimental and analytic study of the effects of magnetic non-linearity and finite length on the loss and field distribution in solid iron due to a travelling mmf wave. In the first half of the thesis, a two-dimensional solution is developed which accounts for the effects of both magnetic non-linearity and eddy-current reaction; this solution is extended, in the second half, to a three-dimensional model. In the two-dimensional solution, new equations for loss and flux/pole are given; these equations contain the primary excitation, the machine parameters and factors describing the shape of the normal B-H curve. The solution applies to machines of any air-gap length. The conditions for maximum loss are defined, and generalised torque/frequency curves are obtained. A relationship between the peripheral component of magnetic field on the surface of the iron and the primary excitation is given. The effects of magnetic non-linearity and finite length are combined analytically by introducing an equivalent constant permeability into a linear three-dimensional analysis. The equivalent constant permeability is defined from the non-linear solution for the two-dimensional magnetic field at the axial centre of the machine to avoid iterative solutions. In the linear three-dimensional analysis, the primary excitation in the passive end-regions of the machine is set equal to zero and the secondary end faces are developed onto the air-gap surface. The analyses, and the assumptions on which they are based, were verified on an experimental machine which consists of a three-phase rotor and alternative solid iron stators, one with copper end rings, and one without copper end rings j the main dimensions of the two stators are identical. Measurements of torque, flux /pole, surface current density and radial power flow were obtained for both stators over a range of frequencies and excitations. Comparison of the measurements on the two stators enabled the individual effects of finite length and saturation to be identified, and the definition of constant equivalent permeability to be verified. The penetration of the peripheral flux into the stator with copper end rings was measured and compared with theoretical penetration curves. Agreement between measured and theoretical results was generally good.
Date of Award1973
Original languageEnglish


  • magnetic linearity
  • finite length effects
  • solid iron
  • travelling MMF wave

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