This thesis describes a detailed study of advanced fibre grating devices using Bragg (FBG) and long-period (LPG) structures and their applications in optical communications and sensing. The major contributions presented in this thesis are summarised below.
One of the most important contributions from the research work presented in this thesis is a systematic theoretical study of many distinguishing structures of fibre gratings. Starting from the Maxwell equations, the coupled-mode equations for both FBG and LPG were derived and the mode-overlap factor was analytically discussed. Computing simulation programmes utilising matrix transform method based on the models built upon the coupled-mode equations were developed, enabling simulations of spectral response in terms of reflectivity, bandwidth, sidelobes and dispersion of gratings of different structures including uniform and chirped, phase-shifted, Moiré, sampled Bragg gratings, phase-shifted and cascaded long-period gratings. Although the majority of these structures were modelled numerically, analytical expressions for some complex structures were developed with a clear physical picture. Several apodisation functions were proposed to improve sidelobe suppression, which guided effective production of practical devices for demanding applications.
Fibre grating fabrication is the other major part involved in the Ph.D. programme. Both the holographic and scan-phase-mask methods were employed to fabricate Bragg and long-period gratings of standard and novel structures. Significant improvements were particularly made in the scan-phase-mask method to enable the arbitrarily tailoring of the spectral response of grating devices. Two specific techniques - slow-shifting and fast-dithering the phase-mask implemented by a computer controlled piezo - were developed to write high quality phase-shifted, sampled and apodised gratings. A large number of LabVIEW programmes were constructed to implement standard and novel fabrication techniques. In addition, some fundamental studies of grating growth in relating to the UV exposure and hydrogenation induced index were carried out. In particular, Type IIa gratings in non-hydrogenated B/Ge co-doped fibres and a re-generated grating in hydrogenated B/Ge fibre were investigated, showing a significant observation of thermal coefficient reduction.
Optical sensing applications utilising fibre grating devices form the third major part of the research work presented in this thesis. Several experiments of novel sensing and sensing-demodulating were implemented. For the first time, an intensity and wavelength dual-coding interrogation technique was demonstrated showing significantly enhanced capacity of grating sensor multiplexing. Based on the mode-splitting measurement, instead of using conventional wavelength-shifting detection technique, successful demonstrations were also made for optical load and bend sensing of ultra-high sensitivity employing LPG structures. In addition, edge-filters and low-loss high-rejection bandpass filters of 50nm stop-band were fabricated for application in optical sensing and high-speed telecommunication systems
|Date of Award||2001|
|Supervisor||Ian Bennion (Supervisor)|
- advanced fibre grating devices
- optical communications
- Maxwell equations
- fibre Bragg grating
- long-period grating
- optical sensing