In this thesis, I describe studies on fabrication, spectral characteristics and applications of tilted fibre gratings (TFGs) with small, large and 45° tilted structures and novel developments in fabrication of fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) and long period gratings (LPGs) in normal silica and mid-infrared (mid-IR) glass fibres using near-IR femtosecond laser. One of the major contributions presented in this thesis is the systematic investigation of structures, inscription methods and spectral, polarisation dependent loss (PDL) and thermal characteristics of TFGs with small (<45°), large (>45°) and 45° tilted structures. I have experimentally characterised TFGs, obtaining relationships between the radiation angle, central wavelength of the radiation profile, Bragg resonance and the tilt angle, which are consistent with theoretical simulation based on the mode-coupling theory. Furthermore, thermal responses have been measured for these three types of TFGs, showing the transmission spectra of large and 45° TFGs are insensitive to the temperature change, unlike the normal and small angle tilted FBGs. Based on the distinctive optical properties, TFGs have been developed into interrogation system and sensors, which form the other significant contributions of the work presented in this thesis. The 10°-TFG based 800nm WDM interrogation system can function not just as an in-fibre spectrum analyser but also possess refractive index sensing capability. By utilising the unique polarisation properties, the 81 °-TFG based sensors are capable of sensing the transverse loading and twisting with sensitivities of 2.04pW/(kg/m) and 145.90pW/rad, repectively. The final but the most important contribution from the research work presented in this thesis is the development of novel grating inscription techniques using near-IR femtosecond laser. A number of LPGs and FBGs were successfully fabricated in normal silica and mid-IR glass fibres using point-by-point and phase-mask techniques. LPGs and 1st and 2nd order FBGs have been fabricated in these mid-IR glass fibres showing resonances covering the wavelength range from 1200 to 1700nm with the strengths up to 13dB. In addition, the thermal and strain sensitivities of these gratings have been systematically investigated. All the results from these initial but systematic works will provide useful function characteristics information for future fibre grating based devices and applications in mid-IR range.
|Date of Award||Sep 2009|
|Supervisor||Lin Zhang (Supervisor)|
- fibre Bragg grating
- tilted fibre grating
- optical fibre sensor
- femtosecond laser inscription
- mid-infrared glass fibre