Advanced tilted fiber gratings and their applications

  • Zhijun Yan

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


This thesis presents a detailed numerical analysis, fabrication method and experimental investigation on 45º tilted fiber gratings (45º-TFGs) and excessively tilted fiber gratings (Ex-TFGs), and their applications in fiber laser and sensing systems. The one of the most significant contributions of the work reported in this thesis is that the 45º-TFGs with high polarization extinction ratio (PER) have been fabricated in single mode telecom and polarization maintaining (PM) fibers with spectral response covering three prominent optic communication and central wavelength ranges at 1060nm, 1310nm and 1550nm. The most achieved PERs for the 45º-TFGs are up to and greater than 35-50dB, which have reached and even exceeded many commercial in-fiber polarizers. It has been proposed that the 45º-TFGs of high PER can be used as ideal in-fiber polarizers for a wide range of fiber systems and applications. In addition, in-depth detailed theoretical models and analysis have been developed and systematic experimental evaluation has been conducted producing results in excellent agreement with theoretical modeling.
Another important outcome of the research work is the proposal and demonstration of all fiber Lyot filters (AFLFs) implemented by utilizing two (for a single stage type) and more (for multi-stage) 45º-TFGs in PM fiber cavity structure. The detailed theoretical analysis and modelling of such AFLFs have also been carried out giving design guidance for the practical implementation. The unique function advantages of 45º-TFG based AFLFs have been revealed, showing high finesse multi-wavelength transmission of single polarization and wide range of tuneability. The temperature tuning results of AFLFs have shown that the AFLFs have 60 times higher thermal sensitivity than the normal FBGs, thus permitting thermal tuning rate of ~8nm/10ºC. By using an intra-cavity AFLF, an all fiber soliton mode locking laser with almost total suppression of siliton sidebands, single polarization output and single/multi-wavelength switchable operation has been demonstrated.
The final significant contribution is the theoretical analysis and experimental verification on the design, fabrication and sensing application of Ex-TFGs. The Ex-TFG sensitivity model to the surrounding medium refractive index (SRI) has been developed for the first time, and the factors that affect the thermal and SRI sensitivity in relation to the wavelength range, tilt angle, and the size of cladding have been investigated. As a practical SRI sensor, an 81º-TFG UV-inscribed in the fiber with small (40μm) cladding radius has shown an SRI sensitivity up to 1180nm/RIU in the index of 1.345 range. Finally, to ensure single polarization detection in such an SRI sensor, a hybrid configuration by UV-inscribing a 45º-TFG and an 81º-TFG closely on the same piece of fiber has been demonstrated as a more advanced SRI sensing system.
Date of Award30 Oct 2013
Original languageEnglish
SupervisorLin Zhang (Supervisor)


  • tilted fibre grating
  • lyot filter
  • mode locking
  • multi-wavelength filter
  • optical fiber sensor

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