An analysis of the effect of process parameters on the formability of sheet metal

  • Peter K. Lee

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


This investigation is in two parts, theory and experimental verification.

(1) Theoretical Study
In this study it is, for obvious reasons, necessary to analyse the concept of formability first. For the purpose of the present investigation it is sufficient to define the four aspects of formability as follows:
(a) the formability of the material at a critical section,
(b) the formability of the material in general,
(c) process efficiency,
(d) proportional increase in surface area.

A method of quantitative assessment is proposed for each of the four aspects of formability.

The theoretical study also includes the distinction between coaxial and non-coaxial strains which occur, respectively, in axisymmetrical and unsymmetrical forming processes and the inadequacy of the circular grid system for the assessment of formability is explained in the light of this distinction.

(2) Experimental Study
As one of the bases of the experimental work, the determination of the end point of a forming process, which sets the limit to the formability of the work material, is discussed. The effects of three process parameters on draw-in are shown graphically. Then the delay of fracture in sheet metal forming resulting from draw-in is analysed in kinematical terms, namely, through the radial displacements, the radial and the circumferential strains, and the projected thickness of the workpiece. Through the equilibrium equation of the membrane stresses, the effect on the shape of the unsupported region of the workpiece, and hence the position of the critical section is explained. Then, the effect of draw-in on the four aspects of formability is discussed throughout this

The triangular coordinate system is used to present and analyse the triaxial strains involved. This coordinate system has the advantage of showing all the three principal strains in a material simultaneously, as well as representing clearly the many types of strains involved in sheet metal work.
Date of AwardApr 1972
Original languageEnglish
SupervisorT.C. Hsu (Supervisor)


  • process parameters
  • formability
  • sheet metal

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