Pt catalyst series were prepared on mesoporous SBA-15, SBA-16, KIT-6, true liquidcrystal-templated meso-macroporous SBA-15 and a commercial, low surface area silicasupport. Support structure can be easily fabricated using surfactant templating as a mode ofstringent control on porosity, surface area and internal structure. The impact of varying Pt-support physicochemical properties was systematically studied for the selective transformation of allylic substrates under chemoselective oxidation and hydrogenation regimes, a class of reactions highly applicable to industry. Pt-based heterogeneous catalysts are well-known for their utilisation in the hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes,although the mode of action and lack of systematic studies in the literature fuels continuing debate into the role of Pt nanoparticles and support choice for this area. This project attempts to shed some light on several frequently asked questions in this field.
Successful support synthesis and stability after Pt impregnation is confirmed through HRTEM, XRD and N2 porosimetry. Decreasing metal loading promoted dispersion values,regardless of support choice, with surface PtO2 content also showing visible enhancement.Increasing support surface area and mesoporosity exhibited the following trend on Pt dispersion augmentation; low surface area commercial silica < true liquid crystal-templated SBA-15 < SBA-15 < SBA-16 ~ KIT-6. For the selective oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol,increasing PtO2 surface population confers substantial rate enhancements, with turnover frequencies evidencing PtO2 to be the active species
.In the Pt-catalysed hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde, strong support insensitivity was observed towards catalytic activity; as turnover frequencies normalised to Pt metal reveal constant values. However, structure sensitivity to the desired unsaturated alcohol arose,evidencing the requirement of flat, extended Pt (111) facets for C=O hydrogenation. Pt/SBA-15 proved the most selective, reflecting suppressed cinnamyl alcohol hydrogenation, with DRIFTS and in-situ ATR-IR evidencing the key role of support polarity in re-orientation of cinnamaldehyde to favour di-σCO adsorption and C=O versus C=C hydrogenation. High pressures increased activity, whilst a dramatic shift in selectivity from dominant C=C (1 bar)to C=O hydrogenation (10 bar) was also observed, attributed to surface crowding and suppression of di-σCC and η4 di-σCO+πC=C cinnamaldehyde binding modes.
|Date of Award
|10 Dec 2015
|Adam Lee (Supervisor) & Karen Wilson (Supervisor)