A variety of methods have been reviewed for obtaining parallel or perpendicular
alignment in liquid-crystal cells. Some of these methods have been selected and
developed and were used in polarised spectroscopy, dielectric and electro-optic studies. Also, novel dielectric and electro-optic cells were constructed for use over a range of temperature.
Dielectric response of thin layers of E7 and E8 (eutectic mixture liquid-crystals) have been measured in the frequency range (12 Hz-100 kHz) and over a range of temperature (183-337K). Dielectric spectra were also obtained for supercooled E7 and E8 in the Hz and kHz range. When the measuring electric field was parallel to the nematic director, one loss peak (low-frequency relaxation process) was observed for E7 and for E8, that exhibits a Debye-type behaviour in the supercooled systems. When the measuring electric field was perpendicular to the nematic director, two resolved dielectric processes have
The phase transitions, effective molecular polarisabilities, anisotropy of polarisabilities and order parameters of three liquid crystal homologs (5CB, 6CB, and 7CB), 60CB and three eutectic nematic mixtures E7, E8, and E607 were calculated using optical and density data measured at several temperatures. The order parameters calculated using the different methods of Vuks, Neugebauer, Saupe-Maier, and Palffy-Muhoray are nearly the same for the liquid crystals considered in the present study. Also, the interrelationship between density and refractive index and the molecular structure of these liquid crystals were established.
Accurate dielectric and dipole results of a range of liquid-crystal forming molecules at several temperatures have reported. The role of the cyano-end group, biphenyl core, and flexible tail in molecular association, were investigated using the dielectric method for some molecules which have a structural relationship to the nematogens. Analysis of the dielectric data for solution of the liquid-crystals indicated a high molecular association, comparable to that observed in the nematic or isotropic phases.
Electro-optic Kerr effect were investigated for some alkyl cyanobiphenyls, their nematic mixtures and the eutectic mixture liquid-crystals E7 and E8 in the isotropic phase and solution. The Kerr constant of these liquid crystals found to be very high at the nematic-isotropic transition temperatures as the molecules are expected to be highly ordered close to phase transition temperatures. Dynamic Kerr effect behaviour and transient molecular reorientation were also observed in thin layers of some alkyl cyanobiphenyls.
Dichroic ratio R and order parameters of solutions containing some azo and anthraquinone dyes in the nematic solvent (E7 and E8), were investigated by the measurement of the intensity of the absorption bands in the visible region of parallel aligned samples. The effective factors on the dichroic ratio of the dyes dissolved in the nematic solvents were determined and discussed.
|Date of Award||May 1995|
|Supervisor||Martin S Beevers (Supervisor)|
- liquid crystals
- alkyl (alkoxy) cyanobiphenyls
- dielectric permitivity
- dielectric relaxation
- electro-optical birefringence