Formulation of immunomodulatory agents

  • Mohammed Iqbal

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography procedures were developed for the analysis of pyrimidine-based drugs bropirimine and its derivatives (2-N-acetyl- and 2-N-propanoyl-) and for pyrimethamine and its 2/4- substituted derivatives (2, N-propanoyl and 2,4-N, N-dipropanoyl-) and its 6- substituted (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and isopropyl- carboxylates) analogues. Stability studies indicated that these derivatives were not sufficiently labile to act as potential prodrugs. Solubility-pH profiles were constructed from which the dissociation constants were calculated.
The physicochemical properties of these compounds were studied and attempts were made to increase the poor aqueous solubility of bropirimine (35μg/mL) by prodrug synthesis, solvate formation (acetic acid, N, N-dimethylformamide and N-methylformamide) and the use of co-solvents and additives. The first two methods proved to be fruitless whereas the latter method resulted in an intravenous formulation incorporating 32mg/mL of bropirimine. An in-vitro method for the detection of precipitation was developed and the results suggested that by using low injection rates (< 0.24mL/min) and high mobile phase flow rates (> 500mL/hr) precipitation could be minimised. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that bropirimine debrominates in the presence of a number of additives commonly used in formulation work but the temperature at which this occurred were usually > 200oC. In-vitro work gave encouraging results for the possibility of rectal delivery of bropirimine but in-vivo work on rabbits showed considerable variations in the resulting plasma levels and pharmacokinetic parameters.
Date of Award1990
Original languageEnglish
SupervisorWilliam J. Irwin (Supervisor)


  • bropirimine
  • bropirimine prodrugs
  • differential scanning calorimetry
  • high-performance liquid chromatography
  • stability
  • suppository

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