AbstractAn uptake system was developed using Caco-2 cell monolayers and the dipeptide, glycyl-[3H]L-proline, as a probe compound. Glycyl-[3H]L-proline uptake was via the di-/tripeptide transport system (DTS) and, exhibited concentration-, pH- and temperature-dependency. Dipeptides inhibited uptake of the probe, and the design of the system allowed competitors to be ranked against one another with respect to affinity for the transporter.
The structural features required to ensure or increase interaction with the DTS were defined by studying the effect of a series of glycyl-L-proline and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor (SQ-29852) analogues on the uptake of the probe. The SQ-29852 structure was divided into six domains (A-F) and competitors were grouped into series depending on structural variations within specific regions. Domain A was found to prefer a hydrophobic function, such as a phenyl group, and was intolerant to positive charges and H+ -acceptors and donors. SQ-29852 analogues were more tolerant of substitutions in the C domain, compared to glycyl-L-proline analogues, suggesting that interactions along the length of the SQ-29852 molecule may override the effects of substitutions in the C domain. SQ-29852 analogues showed a preference for a positive function, such as an amine group in this region, but dipeptide structures favoured an uncharged substitution. Lipophilic substituents in domain D increased affinity of SQ-29852 analogues with the DTS. A similar effect was observed for ACE-NEP inhibitor analogues. Domain E, corresponding to the carboxyl group was found to be tolerant of esterification for SQ-29852 analogues but not for dipeptides. Structural features which may increase interaction for one series of compounds, may not have the same effect for another series, indicating that the presence of multiple recognition sites on a molecule may override the deleterious effect of anyone change. Modifying current, poorly absorbed peptidomimetic structures to fit the proposed hypothetical model may improve oral bioavailability by increasing affinity for the DTS.
The stereochemical preference of the transporter was explored using four series of compounds (SQ-29852, lysylproline, alanylproline and alanylalanine enantiomers). The L, L stereochemistry was the preferred conformation for all four series, agreeing with previous studies. However, D, D enantiomers were shown in some cases to be substrates for the DTS, although exhibiting a lower affinity than their L, L counterparts.
All the ACE-inhibitors and β-lactam antibiotics investigated, produced a degree of inhibition of the probe, and thus show some affinity for the DTS. This contrasts with previous reports that found several ACE inhibitors to be absorbed via a passive process, thus suggesting that compounds are capable of binding to the transporter site and inhibiting the probe without being translocated into the cell. This was also shown to be the case for oligodeoxynucleotide conjugated to a lipophilic group (vitamin E), and highlights the possibility that other orally administered drug candidates may exert non-specific effects on the DTS and possibly have a nutritional impact.
Molecular modelling of selected ACE-NEP inhibitors revealed that the three carbonyl functions can be oriented in a similar direction, and this conformation was found to exist in a local energy-minimised state, indicating that the carbonyls may possibly be involved in hydrogen-bond formation with the binding site of the DTS.
|Date of Award||Sep 1996|
|Supervisor||William J. Irwin (Supervisor)|
- ACE inhibitors
- ACE-NEP inhibitors
- structure-activity relationships