Under ideal conditions ion plating produces finely grained dense coatings with excellent adhesion. The ion bombardment induced damage initiates a large number of small nuclei. Simultaneous coating and sputtering stimulates high rates of diffusion and forms an interfacial region of graded composition responsible for good adhesion. To obtain such coatings on components far industrial applications, the design and construction Of an ion plater with a 24" (O.6rn) diameter chamber were investigated and modifications of the electron beam gun were proposed. A 12" (O.3m) diameter ion plater was designed and constructed. The equipment was used to develop surfaces for solar energy applications. The conditions to give extended surfaces by sputter etching were studied. Austenitic stainless steel was sputter etched at 20 and 30 mTorr working pressure and at 3, 4 and 5 kV. Uniform etching was achieved by redesigning the specimen holder to give a uniform electrostatic field over the surfaces of the specimens. Surface protrusions were observed after sputter etching. They were caused by the sputter process and were independent of grain boundaries, surface contaminants and inclusions. The sputtering rate of stainless steel was highly dependent on the background pressure which should be kept below 10-5 Torr. Sputter etching improved the performance of stainless steel used as a solar selective surface. A twofold improvement was achieved on sputter etching bright annealed stainless steel. However, there was only slight improvement after sputter etching stainless steel which had been mechanically polished to a mirror finish. Cooling curves Were used to measure the thermal emittance of specimens.The deposition rate of copper was measured at different levels of power input and was found to be a maximum at 9.5 kW. The diameter of the copper feed rod was found to be critical for the maintenance of a uniform evaporation rate.
|Date of Award||1983|
|Supervisor||D.J. Arrowsmith (Supervisor)|