Lipid Binding in Worked Wheat Flour Doughs

  • Peter S. Wood

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


A study has been made of factors affecting lipid binding in wheat
flour doughs. Simple flour water doughs, wetted by a method which avoided
the introduction of mechanical work, were used to follow changes in lipid
binding during the initial stages of dough mixing. Varying the moisture
content of such doughs showed that there was a “critical” moisture content
below which mechanical work did not cause any appreciable increase in lipid
binding. Above this moisture content there was a very rapid binding of
flour lipids in the early stages of dough mixing, the total amount of
lipid bound increasing as the mixing speed was raised. It was concluded
that gluten development was the major factor affecting lipid binding.

When fully hydrated doughs containing lipoxygenase-active soya flour
were mixed in air this initial rapid increase in bound lipid was followed
by a release of bound lipid. The onset of lipid release was shown to
occur after the same mixing time irrespective of mixing speed. However
the time taken was dependent upon the availability of oxygen in the system.

To examine these effects in greater detail the binding of glyceryl tri
(oleate-9,10°H), glyceryl tri (palmitate-1-'4c) and palmitic acid- 1-14C,:
has been studied by the use of liquid scintillation counting. The
use of these labelled compounds revealed a difference in the behaviour
of the free fatty acids compared with the triglycerides. Whereas triolein
and tripalmitin showed similar overall binding patterns to the total flour
lipids, palmitic acid gradually became less extractable with the solvents
used to determine free lipid. Moreover it was shown that in both air and
nitrogen there was a very rapid interchange of triolein between the free
and bound lipid.

A new theory of lipid behaviour in dough has been proposed in which
it was suggested that the triglycerides were in dynamic equilibrium between
the free and bound states. Mixing in nitrogen was thought to shift the
equilibrium towards the bound state whilst mixing in air had the opposite

The relevance of these observations to current concepts of the nature
of lipid binding in wheat flour doughs has been discussed with particular
reference to the effect of lipids on baking performance.
Date of Award1973
Original languageEnglish


  • Lipid binding
  • worked wheat flour doughs

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