Mechanisms of drying of skin forming materials

  • Haydar M. Hassan

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


The literature relating to evaporation from single droplets of pure liquids, and to the drying of droplets containing solids and of droplet sprays has been reviewed. The heat and mass transfer rates for a single droplet suspended from a nozzle were studied within a 42mm I.D. horizontal wind tunnel designed to supply hot dry air, to simulate conditions encountered in a practical spray dryer. A novel rotating glass nozzle was developed to facilitate direct measurements of droplet weight and core temperature. This design minimised heat conduction through the nozzle. Revised correlations were obtained for heat and mass transfer coefficients, for evaporation from pure water droplets suspended from a rotating nozzle. Nu = 2.0 + 0.27 (l/B)°-18Re°-5Pr°-83 Sh = 2.0 + 0.575 ((T0-T.)/Tomfc) -o.o4Reo.5 ^0.33 Experimental drying studies were carried out on single droplets of different types of skin-forming materials, namely, custard, gelatin, skim milk and fructose at air temperatures ranging from 19°C to 198°C. Dried crusts were recovered and examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Skin-forming materials were classified into three types according to the mechanisms of skin formation. In the first type (typified by droplets of custard and starch) skin formed due to gelatinisation at high temperatures. Increasing the drying temperature resulted in increased crust resistance to mass transfer due to increased granule swelling and the crust resistance was completely transferred to a skin resistance at drying temperatures > 150°C. In the second type e.g. gelatin droplets the skin formed immediately drying had taken place at any drying temperature. At drying temperature > 60° C a more resistant skin was formed. In the third type (typified by droplets of skim milk and fructose) the skin appeared on the droplet surface at a certain stage of the drying process under any drying conditions. As the drying temperature was increased the resistance of the skin to mass transfer increased. The drying rate history of any material depended upon the nature of the skin formed which, in turn, depended upon the drying conditions. A mathematical model was proposed for the drying of the first type of skin-forming material. This was based on the assumption that, once all the granules gelatinised at the gelatinisation temperature, a skin appeared instantaneously on the droplet surface. The experimentally-observed times at which the skin appeared on the droplets surfaces were in excellent agreement with those predicted from the model. The work should assist in understanding the fundamentals of paniculate drying processes, particularly when skin-formation occurs and may be a crucial factor in volatiles retention.
Date of Award1991
Original languageEnglish


  • drying
  • skin forming materials

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