AbstractVisual perception is dependent on both light transmission through the eye and neuronal conduction through the visual pathway. Advances in clinical diagnostics and treatment modalities over recent years have increased the opportunities to improve the optical path and retinal image quality. Higher order aberrations and retinal straylight are two major factors that influence light transmission through the eye and ultimately, visual outcome. Recent technological advancements have brought these important factors into the clinical domain, however the potential applications of these tools and considerations regarding interpretation of data are much underestimated. The purpose of this thesis was to validate and optimise wavefront analysers and a new clinical tool for the objective evaluation of
intraocular scatter. The application of these methods in a clinical setting involving a range of conditions was also explored. The work was divided into two principal sections:
1. Wavefront Aberrometry: optimisation, validation and clinical application
The main findings of this work were:
• Observer manipulation of the aberrometer increases variability by a factor of 3.
• Ocular misalignment can profoundly affect reliability, notably for off-axis aberrations.
• Aberrations measured with wavefront analysers using different principles are not interchangeable, with poor relationships and significant differences between values.
• Instrument myopia of around 0.30D is induced when performing wavefront analysis in non-cyclopleged eyes; values can be as high as 3D, being higher as the baseline level of myopia decreases. Associated accommodation changes may result in relevant changes to the aberration profile, particularly with respect to spherical aberration.
• Young adult healthy Caucasian eyes have significantly more spherical aberration than Asian eyes when matched for age, gender, axial length and refractive error. Axial length is significantly correlated with most components of the aberration profile.
2. Intraocular light scatter: Evaluation of subjective measures and validation and
application of a new objective method utilising clinically derived wavefront patterns.
The main findings of this work were:
• Subjective measures of clinical straylight are highly repeatable. Three measurements are suggested as the optimum number for increased reliability.
• Significant differences in straylight values were found for contact lenses designed for contrast enhancement compared to clear lenses of the same design and material specifications. Specifically, grey/green tints induced significantly higher values of retinal straylight.
• Wavefront patterns from a commercial Hartmann-Shack device can be used to obtain objective measures of scatter and are well correlated with subjective straylight values.
• Perceived retinal stray light was similar in groups of patients implanted with monofocal and multi focal intraocular lenses. Correlation between objective and subjective measurements of scatter is poor, possibly due to different illumination conditions between the testing procedures, or a neural component which may alter with age.
Careful acquisition results in highly reproducible in vivo measures of higher order
aberrations; however, data from different devices are not interchangeable which brings the accuracy of measurement into question. Objective measures of intraocular straylight can be derived from clinical aberrometry and may be of great diagnostic and management importance in the future.
|Date of Award||Jan 2007|
|Supervisor||Sarah L Hosking (Supervisor)|
- wavefront aberrations
- intraocular scatter
- retinal image quality