Production and action of local mediators in the rat gastric mucosa

  • James Francis Brown

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy

Abstract

This study concerns the production and action of the local mediators nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the rat gastric mucosa. The major objectives were: (i) to determine which mucosal cell type(s) contained NO synthase activity, (ii) to establish the functional role(s) of NO in the gastric mucosa and (iii) to investigate regulation of gastric PGE2 production.
Gastric mucosal cells were isolated by pronase digestion coupled with intermittent calcium chelation and were separated by either density-gradient centrifugation or by counterflow elutriation. The distribution of Ca2+ -dependent NO synthase activity, measured via the conversion of [14C]-L-arginine to [14C]-L- citrulline, paralleled the distribution of mucous cells in elutriated fractions. Pre-treatment of rats with lipopolysaccharide caused the induction of Ca2+ -independent NO synthase in the elutriator fractions enriched with mucous cells.
Incubation of isolated cells with the NO donor isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) produced a concentration-dependent increase in the guanosine 3',-5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) content which was accompanied by a concentration-dependent increase in release of immunoreactive mucin. Intragastric administration of ISDN of dibutyryl cGMP in vivo increased the thickness of the mucus layer overlying the gastric mucosa.
The NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition (IC50 247 μM) of histamine-stimulated aminopyrine accumulation, a measure of secretory activity, in cell suspensions containing > 80% parietal cells. SNAP increased the cGMP content of the suspension but did not decrease cellular viability, glucose oxidation or adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate content. The inhibitory effect of SNAP was observed in permeabilised cells stimulated with ATP and was stereospecifically blocked by preincubation with Rp-8-bromoguanosine 3'-5'-monophosphorothioate, which inhibits activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase.
Stimulation of PGE2 release by bradykinin in a low density cell fraction, enriched
with parietal cells and devoid of vascular endothelial cells and macrophages, involved a bradykinin B1 receptor.
In summary, NO synthase activity is probably present in gastric mucous epithelial
cells. NO may promote mucus secretion by elevation of cGMP. NO donors inhibit acid secretion at a specific site and their action may involve cGMP. The bradykinin B1 receptor is involved with PGE2 production in the gastric mucosa.
Date of AwardMar 1994
Original languageEnglish
SupervisorPeter J Hanson (Supervisor) & B.J.R. Whittle (Supervisor)

Keywords

  • gastric mucosa
  • nitric oxide
  • gastric secretions
  • guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate
  • prostaglandin E2

Cite this

Production and action of local mediators in the rat gastric mucosa
Brown, J. F. (Author). Mar 1994

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy