The thesis presents a detailed study of different Raman fibre laser (RFL) based amplification techniques and their applications in long-haul/unrepeatered coherent transmission systems. RFL based amplifications techniques were characterised from different aspects, including signal/noise power distributions, relative intensity noise (RIN), mode structures of induced Raman fibre lasers, and so on. It was found for the first time that RFL based amplification techniques could be divided into three categories in terms of the fibre laser regime, which were Fabry-Perot fibre laser with two FBGs, weak Fabry-Perot fibre laser with one FBG and very low reflection near the input, and random distributed feedback (DFB) fibre laser with one FBG. It was also found that lowering the reflection near the input could mitigate the RIN of the signal significantly, thanks to the reduced efficiency of the Stokes shift from the FW-propagated pump. In order to evaluate the transmission performance, different RFL based amplifiers were evaluated and optimised in long-haul coherent transmission systems. The results showed that Fabry-Perot fibre laser based amplifier with two FBGs gave >4.15 dB Q factor penalty using symmetrical
bidirectional pumping, as the RIN of the signal was increased significantly. However, random distributed feedback fibre laser based amplifier with one FBG could mitigate the RIN of the signal, which enabled the use of bidirectional second order pumping and consequently give the best transmission performance up to 7915 km. Furthermore, using random DFB fibre laser
based amplifier was proved to be effective to combat the nonlinear impairment, and the maximum reach was enhanced by >28% in mid-link single/dual band optical phase conjugator (OPC) transmission systems. In addition, unrepeatered transmission over >350 km fibre length using RFL based amplification technique were presented experimentally using DP-QPSK and DP-16QAM transmitter.
- Raman amplification
- fibre amplifiers
- coherent communications