Recently Homer and Percival have postulated that intermolecular van der Waals dispersion forces can be characterized by three mechanisms. The first arises via the mean square reaction field < R1; 2> due to the transient dipole of a particular solute molecule that is considered situated in a cavity surrounded by solvent molecules; this was characterized by an extended Onsager approach. The second stems from the extra cavity mean square reaction field < R2; 2> of the near neighbour solvent molecules. The third originates from square field electric fields E2BI due to a newly characterized effect in which solute atoms are `buffeted' by the peripheral atoms of adjacent solvent molecules. The present work concerns more detailed studies of the buffeting screening, which is governed by sterically controlled parameter (2T - T)2, where and are geometric structural parameters. The original approach is used to characterise the buffeting shifts induced by large solvent molecules and the approach is found to be inadequate. Consequently, improved methods of calculating and are reported. Using the improved approach it is shown that buffeting is dependent on the nature of the solvent as well as the nature of the solute molecule. Detailed investigation of the buffeting component of the van der Waals chemical shifts of selected solutes in a range of solvents containing either H or Cl as peripheral atoms have enabled the determination of a theoretical acceptable value for the classical screening coefficient B for protons. 1H and 13C resonance studies of tetraethylmethane and 1H, 13C and 29Si resonance studies of TMS have been used to support the original contention that three (< R1; 2> , < R2; 2> and E2BI) components of intermolecular van der Waals dispersion fields are required to characterise vdW chemical shifts.
|Date of Award||1987|
- solvent induced NMR chemical shifts
- molecular encounters