The linguistic situation in Kirkuk
: a sociolinguistic study

  • Mchammed A. Qadir

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


This study is concerned with the linguistic situation in the town of Kirkuk in north eastern Iraq. In this town there are three main ethnic groups: Kurds, Arabs and Turkmana with some very smell minorities such as Chaldeene, Assyrians and Armenians. The languages spoken by these three ethnic groups belong to different language Family groups. In the First cart of the study the historical background of the population, a review of the literature, both of the present linguistic situation in Kirkuk end of relevant sociolinguistics in general, and the theoretical Framework, have been discussed in detail in order to provide background to this study which is mainly concerned with the Following areas: 1. The relationships existing between ethnic background and language usage and language loyalty in Kirkuk. 2. The attitudes of Kirkukiane towards language maintenance and language shift in Kirkuk. 3. Bilingual, multilingual individual communicative competence of Kurds, Arabs and Turkmans in the languages concerned, including the degree to which such a speaker is bilingual or multilingual and the nature of bilingualism or multilingualism in different domains and situations in Kirkuk. To throw light a these areas a situationally-oriented language survey was conducted; the relevant data was collected by randomly distributed questionnaire, by parsonal interview, by personal observation of language use and language attitudes in this town. The data subjected to commuter analysis and the results proved that the were no significant and substantial correlations between the language use, attitudes and competence based on the socio-economic status of respondents in this town, on the other hand, the correlations between the ethnic backgrounds and the language, use, attitudes and competence are indisoutable.
Date of Award1980
Original languageEnglish


  • sociolinguistic
  • language use
  • attitides
  • multilingualism
  • KirKuk

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