AbstractThe literature relating to the principles and practice of drying of materials, particularly those susceptible to thermal degradation or undesirable loss of volatile components, has been reviewed.
Single droplets of heat-sensitive materials were dried whilst suspended in a horizontal wind tunnel from a specially-designed, rotating thermocouple which enabled direct observation of drying behaviour and continuous measurement of droplet temperature as drying progressed.
The effects of drying air temperature and initial solids concentration on the potency of various antibiotics, viz. ampicillin, chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline, streptomycin and tetracycline, were assessed using a modified Drug Sensitivity Testing technique. Only ampicillin was heat-sensitive at temperatures above 100°C, e.g. at an air temperature of 115°C its zone diameter was reduced from 100% to 45%.
Selected enzymes, viz. dextran sucrase and invertase, were also dried and their residual activities determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The residual activity of dextran sucrase was rapidly reduced at temperatures above 65°C, and the residual activity of invertase reduced rapidly at temperatures above 65°C; but drying with short residence times will retain most of its activity.
The performance of various skin-forming encapsulants, viz. rice and wheat starch, dextrin, coffee, skim milk, fructose, gelatine 60 and 150 Bloom, and gum arabic, was evaluated to determine their capabilities for retention of ethanol as a model volatile, under different operating conditions. The effects of initial solids concentration, air velocity and temperature were monitored for each material tested. Ethanol content was analysed by Gas Liquid Chromatography and in some cases dried crusts were removed for examination. Volatiles retention was concluded to depend in all cases upon the rate and nature of the skin formation and selective diffusion phenomena.
The results provided further insight into the inter-relationship between temperature, residence time and thermal degradation of heat-sensitive materials. They should also assist in selection of the preferred dryer for such materials, and of the operating parameter to enable maximum retention of the required physico-chemical characteristics in the dried materials.
|Date of Award
|C.J. Mumford (Supervisor)
- single drop drying
- volatiles retention
- spray drying
- freeze drying
- heat-sensitive materials