In recent years, much interest has focused on the beneficial effects of administering potentially harmful therapeutic agents in drug carriers so as to reduce their toxic side effects. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic disease with progressive destruction of the Joints and long term patient disability, Corticosteroids have been shown to retard the progression of Joint destruction but are limited in their use due to adverse side effects,This project, following the line of investigation started by other workers, was designed to study the use of microspheres to deliver corticosteroids to inflamed tissues by both the oral and intravenous routes. Hydrocortisone (HC)-loaded albumin microspheres were prepared by three different methods, by direct incorporation of HC within the particles, by indirect incorporation of HC by the enzymatic conversion of hydrocortisone-21-phosphate (H-21-P) to HC within the particles, and by the adsorption of HC onto the surface. HC was also loaded with PLA microspheres. The level of corticosteriod loading and in vitro release from microspheres was determined by HPLC analysis. A reversed-phase, ion-pairing HPLC method was developed to simultaneously measure both HC and H-21-P. The highest level of corticosteroid loading was achieved using the incorporation of H-21-P with enzymatic conversion to HC method. However, HPLC analysis showed only 5% of the incorporated steroid was HC. In vitro release rates of steroid from albumin microspheres showed >95% of incorporated steroid was released within 2 hours of dissolution. Increasing the protein:steroid ratio, and the temperature and duration of microsphere stabilization, had little effect on prolonging drug release. In vivo studies, using the carrageenan-induced rat hind-paw model of inflammation, indicated steroid-incorporated microspheres administered both orally and intraperitoneally were not therapeutically advantageous when compared to equivalent free steroid doses.
The ability of orally and intravenously dosed [125I]~albumin microspheres (2.67 μm mean diameter) to accumulate in acutely and chronically inflamed tissues was
investigated, The subcutaneous air-pouch was the model of inflammation used, with carrageenan as the inflammatory stimulus. Acute and chronic inflammation was shown to be consistently formed in pouch tissues in terms of cell infiltration and fluid exudate formation in the pouch cavity. Albumin microspheres were shown to accumulate in the inflamed tissues and pouch fluids after both oral and intravenous administration. Preliminary, confirmatory studies using latex microspheres and quantitation by GPC analysis, also indicated microsphere accumulation in both acutely and chronically inflamed air-pouch tissues.
tntl lUr"'poucbtis,sues; The results indicate the uptake and transfer of microspheres across the gastrointestinal tract into the circulation and their migration through disrupted endothelium and basement membranes at the inflamed sites.
|Date of Award||Nov 1994|
|Supervisor||D.A. Lewis (Supervisor)|
- drug delivery
- rheumatoid arthritis