Spatial patterns of TDP-43 neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI) in fifteen cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

View graph of relations Save citation


  • Richard A. Armstrong
  • Nigel J. Cairns

Research units


Neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI) immunoreactive for transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) are the pathological hallmark of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP). We studied the spatial patterns of the TDP-43 immunoreactive NCI in the frontal and temporal cortex of 15 cases of FTLD-TDP. The NCI were distributed parallel to the tissue boundary predominantly in regular clusters 50-400 µm in diameter. In five cortical areas, the size of the clusters approximated to the cells of the cortico-cortical pathways. In most regions, cluster size was smaller than 400 µm. There were no significant differences in spatial patterns between familial and sporadic cases. Cluster size of the NCI was not correlated with disease duration, brain weight, Braak stage, or disease subtype. The spatial pattern of the NCI was similar to that of neuronal inclusions in other neurodegenerative diseases and may reflect a common pattern of degeneration involving the cortico-cortical projections.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)653-659
Number of pages7
JournalNeurological Sciences
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2011

Bibliographic note

The original publication is available at


  • frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy, FTLD-TDP, TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa, TDP-43, neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions, NCI, spatial pattern

Employable Graduates; Exploitable Research

Copy the text from this field...