Types of task, types of audience, types of actor: interactions between mere presence and personality type in a simple mathematical task

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Research into social facilitation effects reveals three factors affecting response performance: types of task, types of audience and type of actor. This study attempts to establish a minimal baseline for task and audience type in order to examine difference between personality types in the actors. Results indicate that performance in both extraverts and introverts increases in the minimal conditions of the mere presence of another person whilst carrying out a simple mathematical task. These results are interpreted through an analysis of Zajonc's (1965) drive theory with Eysenck's (1967) personality theory indicating that through further investigation performance curves might be devised for introverts and extraverts performing under a variety of task and audience conditions.

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)633-639
Number of pages7
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2003


  • personality, introvert, extravert, audience, mere presence, task type

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