AbstractThis research primarily focused on identifying the formulation parameters which control the efficacy of liposomes as delivery systems to enhance the delivery of poorly soluble drugs.
Preliminary studies focused on the drug loading of ibuprofen within vesicle systems. Initially both liposomal and niosomal formulations were screened for their drug-loading capacity: liposomal systems were shown to offer significantly higher ibuprofen loading and thereafter lipid based systems were further investigated. Given the key role cholesterol is known to play within the stability of bilayer vesicles. the optimum cholesterol content in terms of drug loading and release of poorly soluble drugs was then investigated. From these studies a
concentration of 11 total molar % of cholesterol was used as a benchmark for all further formulations.
Investigating the effect of liposomc composition on several low solubility drugs, drug loading was shown to be enhanced by adopting longer chain length lipids. cationic lipids and. decreasing drug molecular weight. Drug release was increased by using cationic lipids and lower molecular weight of drug; conversely, a reduction was noted when employing longer chain lipids thus supporting the rational of longer chain lipids producing more stable liposomes, a theory also supported by results obtained via Langmuir studies· although it was revealed that stability is also dependent on geometric features associated with the lipid chain moiety. Interestingly, reduction in drug loading appeared to be induced when symmetrical phospholipids were substituted for lipids constituting asymmetrical alkyl chain groups thus further highlighting the importance of lipid geometry. Combining a symmetrical lipid with an asymmetrical derivative enhanced encapsulation of a hydrophobic drug while reducing that of
another suggesting the importance of drug characteristics.
Phosphatidylcholine liposornes could successfully be prepared (and visualised using transmission electron microscopy) from fatty alcohols therefore offering an alternative liposomal stabiliser to cholesterol. Results obtained revealed that liposomes containing tetradecanol within their formulation shares similar vesicle size, drug encapsulation, surface charge. and toxicity profiles as liposomes formulated with cholesterol, however the tetradecanol preparation appeared to release considerably more drug during stability studies. Langmuir monolayer studies revealed that the condensing influence by tetradecanol is less than compared with cholesterol suggesting that this reduced intercalation by the former could explain why the tetradecanol formulation released more drug compared with cholesterol formulations.
Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used to analyse the morphology and stability of liposomes. These investigations indicated that the presence of drugs within the liposomal bilayer were able to enhance the stability of the bilayers against collapse under reduced hydration conditions. In addition the presence of charged lipids within the formulation under reduced hydration conditions compared with its neutral counterpart. However the applicability of using ESEM as a new method to investigate liposome stability appears less valid than first hoped since the results are often open to varied interpretation and
do not provide a robust set of data to support conclusions in some cases.
|Date of Award||Aug 2008|
|Supervisor||Yvonne Perrie (Supervisor)|
- poorly soluble drugs
- fatty alcohols