Nonmetallic inclusion modification and its effect on the final properties of a linepipe steel

  • Neil J. Keegan

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


Five linepipe type steels were produced in order to study the effect of calcium and magnesium injection on their final properties. Two of these steels were at the extremes of the sulphide range i.e. 0.003 and 0.017% sulphur with no injection attempted; thereby, providing standards to compare with the injected steels. The oxygen level varied from 21 to 63 p.p.m. The cast ingots were controlled-rolled and isothermally rolled in order to study the deformation characteristics of the residual non-metallic inclusions.
The structure and cleanliness of these steels was evaluated metallographically using the light microscope, SEM, and image analysis and the results related to their Charpy toughness and HIC resistance.
Increasing sulphur levels decreased final properties of the steel. In the untreated state, with as little as 0.003% sulphur, test orientation was highly influential. Modification of sulphur bearing steels was achieved with low modifying element to sulphur ratios provided that the oxygen content was very low. Injection of calcium into steel caused interaction with oxide and sulphide inclusions which was biased toward oxide reduction relative to sulphur removal. Magnesium again reduced oxides and appeared to be linked with aluminia containing inclusions in the final product. It produced improved toughness values relative to a similar sulphur containing calcium treated steel.
The results of this work could be extended to establish the mechanism of inclusion modification with magnesium additions to sulphur bearing steels.
Date of AwardAug 1987
Original languageEnglish
SupervisorJ.C. Billington (Supervisor)


  • linepipe
  • calcium
  • magnesium
  • inclusions
  • toughness
  • cleanliness

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