Radial-field magnetic electron lenses

  • C.D. Newman

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


This investigation looks critically at conventional magnetic lenses in the light of present-day technology with the aim of advancing electron microscopy in its broadest sense. By optimising the cooling arrangements and heat transfer characteristics of lens windings it was possible to increase substantially the current density in the winding, and achieve a large reduction in the size of conventional magnetic electron lenses. Following investigations into the properties of solenoidal lenses, a new type of lens with only one pole-piece was developed. The focal properties of such lenses, which differ considerably from those.of conventional lenses, have been derived from a combination of mathematical models and experimentally measured axial flux density distributions. These properties can be profitably discussed with reference to "half-lenses". Miniature conventional twin pole-piece lenses and the proposed radial field single pole-piece lenses have been designed and constructed and both types of lenses have been evaluated by constructing miniature electron optical columns. A miniature experimental transmission electron microscope (TEM), a miniature scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a scanning transmission microscope (STEM) have been built. A single pole-piece miniature one million volt projector lens of only lOcm diameter and weighing 2.lkg was designed, built and tested at 1 million volts in a commercial electron microscope. iii. Preliminary experiments indicate that in single pole lenses it is possible to extract secondary electrons from the specimen in spite of the presence of the magnetic field of the probe-forming lens. This may well be relevant for the SEM in which it is desirable to examine a large specimen at a moderately good resolution.
Date of AwardSept 1976
Original languageEnglish
SupervisorT. Mulvey (Supervisor)


  • radial-field magnetic electron lenses

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