Stability studies on pencillin derivatives

  • John M. Hempenstall

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


Current analytical assay methods for ampicillin sodium and cloxacillin sodium are discussed and compared, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (H.P.L.C.) being chosen as the most accurate, specific and precise.
New H.P.L.C. methods for the analysis of benzathine cloxacillin; benzathine penicillin V; procaine penicillin injection B.P.; benethamine penicillin injection; fortified B.P.C.; benzathine penicillin injection; benzathine penicillin injection, fortified B.P.C.; benzathine penicillin suspnsion; ampicillin syrups and
penicillin syrups are described.
Mechanical or chemical damage to column packings is often associated with H.P.L.C. analysis. One type, that of channel formation, is investigated. The high linear velocity of solvent and solvent pulsing during the pumping cycle were found to be the cause of this damage.
The applicability of nonisotherrnal kinetic experiments to penicillin V
preparations, including formulated paediatric syrups, is evaluated. A new type of nonisotherrnal analysis, based on slope estimation and using a 64K Random Access Memory (R.A.M.) microcomputer is described. The name of the program written for this analysis is NONISO.
The distribution of active penicillin in granules for reconstitution into ampicillin and penicillin V syrups, and its effect on the stability of the reconstituted products, are investigated. Changing the diluent used to reconstitue the syrups was found to affect the stability of the product.
Dissolution and stability of benzathine cloxacillin at pH2, pH6 and pH9 is described, with proposed dissolution mechanisms and kinetic analysis to support these mechanisms. Benzathine and cloxacillin were found to react in solution at pH9, producing an insoluble amide.
Date of AwardSept 1982
Original languageEnglish
SupervisorWilliam J. Irwin (Supervisor)


  • penicillin
  • stability
  • nonisothermal
  • assay
  • dissolution

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