Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that causes loss of the tooth-supporting apparatus, including periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. A broad range of treatment options is currently available to restore the structure and function of the periodontal tissues. A regenerative approach, among others, is now considered the most promising paradigm for this purpose, harnessing the unique properties of stem cells. How to make full use of the body's innate regenerative capacity is thus a key issue. While stem cells and bioactive factors are essential components in the regenerative processes, matrices play pivotal roles in recapitulating stem cell functions and potentiating therapeutic actions of bioactive molecules. Moreover, the positions of appropriate bioactive matrices relative to the injury site may stimulate the innate regenerative stem cell populations, removing the need to deliver cells that have been manipulated outside of the body. In this topical review, we update views on advanced designs of biomatrices-including mimicking of the native extracellular matrix, providing mechanical stimulation, activating cell-driven matrices, and delivering bioactive factors in a controllable manner-which are ultimately useful for the regenerative therapy of periodontal tissues.
Bibliographical note© International & American Associations for Dental Research.
- Biomimetic Materials/therapeutic use
- Guided Tissue Regeneration, Periodontal/instrumentation
- Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/therapeutic use
- Prosthesis Design
- Stem Cells/physiology
- Tissue Engineering/instrumentation
- Tissue Scaffolds