Barriers to the adoption of blockchain technology in business supply chains: a total interpretive structural modelling (TISM) approach

Deepak Mathivathanan, K. Mathiyazhagan*, Nripendra P. Rana*, Sangeeta Khorana, Yogesh K. Dwivedi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Blockchain is an emerging technology with a wide array of potential applications. This technology, which underpins cryptocurrency, provides an immutable, decentralised, and transparent distributed database of digital assets for use by firms in supply chains. However, not all firms are appropriately suited to adopt blockchain in the existing supply chain primarily due to their lack of knowledge on the benefits of this technology. Using Total Interpretive Structural Modelling (TISM) and Cross-Impact Matrix Multiplication Applied to Classification (MICMAC), this paper identifies the adoption barriers, examines the interrelationships between them to the adoption of blockchain technology, which has the potential to revolutionise supply chains. The TISM technique supports developing a contextual relationship-based structural model to identify the influential barriers. MICMAC classifies the barriers in blockchain adoption based on their strength and dependence. The results of this research indicate that the lack of business awareness and familiarity with blockchain technology on what it can deliver for future supply chains, are the most influential barriers that impede blockchain adoption. These barriers hinder and impact businesses decision to establish a blockchain-enabled supply chain and that other barriers act as secondary and linked variables in the adoption process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3338-3359
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal of Production Research
Issue number11
Early online date12 Jan 2021
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • Barriers
  • Blockchain
  • Supply Chain
  • Total Interpretive Structural Modelling


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