BCLA CLEAR Presbyopia: Epidemiology and impact

Maria Markoulli, Timothy R Fricke, Anitha Arvind, Kevin D Frick, Kerryn M Hart, Mahesh R Joshi, Himal Kandel, Antonio Filipe Macedo, Dimitra Makrynioti, Neil Retallic, Nery Garcia-Porta, Gauri Shrestha, James S Wolffsohn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The global all-ages prevalence of epidemiologically-measured 'functional' presbyopia was estimated at 24.9% in 2015, affecting 1.8 billion people. This prevalence was projected to stabilise at 24.1% in 2030 due to increasing myopia, but to affect more people (2.1 billion) due to population dynamics. Factors affecting the prevalence of presbyopia include age, geographic location, urban versus rural location, sex, and, to a lesser extent, socioeconomic status, literacy and education, health literacy and inequality. Risk factors for early onset of presbyopia included environmental factors, nutrition, near demands, refractive error, accommodative dysfunction, medications, certain health conditions and sleep. Presbyopia was found to impact on quality-of-life, in particular quality of vision, labour force participation, work productivity and financial burden, mental health, social wellbeing and physical health. Current understanding makes it clear that presbyopia is a very common age-related condition that has significant impacts on both patient-reported outcome measures and economics. However, there are complexities in defining presbyopia for epidemiological and impact studies. Standardisation of definitions will assist future synthesis, pattern analysis and sense-making between studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102157
Number of pages19
JournalContact lens & anterior eye : the journal of the British Contact Lens Association
Early online date8 Apr 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 8 Apr 2024

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2024. The Authors on behalf of British Contact Lens Association. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)


  • Age
  • Impact of presbyopia
  • Patient-reported outcome measures
  • Presbyopia prevalence
  • Quality of life
  • Questionnaire
  • Risk factors
  • Urban


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