Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a major healthcare burden on the population worldwide. Early detection of this disease is important in prevention and treatment to minimise morbidity and mortality. Biomarkers are a critical tool to either diagnose, screen, or provide prognostic information for pathological conditions. This review discusses the historical cardiac biomarkers used to detect these conditions, discussing their application and their limitations. Identification of new biomarkers have since replaced these and are now in use in routine clinical practice, but still do not detect all disease. Future cardiac biomarkers are showing promise in early studies, but further studies are required to show their value in improving detection of CVD above the current biomarkers. Additionally, the analytical platforms that would allow them to be adopted in healthcare are yet to be established. There is also the need to identify whether these biomarkers can be used for diagnostic, prognostic, or screening purposes, which will impact their implementation in routine clinical practice.
|Journal||International Journal of Molecular Sciences|
|Publication status||Published - 19 May 2022|
Bibliographical note© 2022 by the authors.
Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
This article is an open access article
distributed under the terms and
conditions of the Creative Commons
Attribution (CC BY) license (https://
- Cardiovascular diseases
- Future biomarkers