Sewage sludge was pyrolysed with 40% mixed wood, 40% rapeseed and 40% straw. The reason for the mixture of different biomass is to investigate the impact of co-pyrolysis on the upper phase of bio-oil in terms of changes to composition, elemental analysis, viscosity, water content, pH, higher heating value and acid number that could impact on their applications. The biomass was pyrolysed in a laboratory at 450 °C and bio-oil was collected from two cooling traps. The bio-oil obtained from co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge with wood, rapeseed and straw was analysed for composition using the gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The upper phase from the co-pyrolysis process was also characterised for ultimate analysis, higher heating values, water content, viscosity, pH and acid number. There was an increase in the amount of upper phase produced with co-pyrolysis of 40% rapeseed. It was also found that the upper phase from sewage sludge with mixed wood has the highest viscosity, acid number and lowest pH. The bio-oil containing 40% straw was found to have a pH of 6.5 with a very low acid number while the 40% rapeseed was found to have no acid number. Sewage sludge with 40% rapeseed was found to have the highest energy content of 34.8 MJ/kg, 40% straw has 32.5 MJ/kg while the 40% mixed wood pyrolysis oil has the lowest energy content of 31.3 MJ/kg. The 40% rapeseed fraction was found to have the highest water content of 8.2% compared to other fractions.
- sewage sludge