We present numerical modeling based on a combination of the Bidirectional Beam Propagation Method and Finite Element Method that completely describes the wavelength spectra of point by point femtosecond laser inscribed fiber Bragg gratings, showing excellent agreement with experiment. We have investigated the dependence of different spectral parameters such as insertion loss, all dominant cladding and ghost modes and their shape relative to the position of the fiber Bragg grating in the core of the fiber. Our model is validated by comparing model predictions with experimental data and allows for predictive modeling of the gratings. We expand our analysis to more complicated structures, where we introduce symmetry breaking; this highlights the importance of centered gratings and how maintaining symmetry contributes to the overall spectral quality of the inscribed Bragg gratings. Finally, the numerical modeling is applied to superstructure gratings and a comparison with experimental results reveals a capability for dealing with complex grating structures that can be designed with particular wavelength characteristics. (C) 2010 Optical Society of America
Bibliographical note© 2010 Optical Society of America This paper was published in Optics Express and is made available as an electronic reprint with the permission of OSA. The paper can be found at the following URL on the OSA website: http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-1-342. Systematic or multiple reproduction or distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means is prohibited and is subject to penalties under law.
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