Chemically specific identification of carbon in XPS imaging using Multivariate Auger Feature Imaging (MAFI)

Anders J. Barlow, Sinziana Popescu, Kateryna Artyushkova, Oliver Scott, Naoko Sano, John Hedley, Peter J. Cumpson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Until now, a difficult prospect in XPS imaging has been the identification of similar chemical states of carbon. With the advent of novel nano-carbons such as nanotubes and graphene, the ability to easily and unambiguously identify materials of varying sp2/sp3 nature in XPS spectra and images is becoming increasingly important. We present herein methods for the identification of such species in XPS images by shifting focus from the traditionally analysed C1s region to the X-ray induced carbon Auger feature. By extracting the D-Parameter from XPS data, we have generated what we refer to as "D-Parameter Images", that clearly identify regions of different carbon hybridisation in an image of a graphite flake mounted on carbon tape, and areas of reduced graphene oxide (GO) in a laser-scribed GO film. This method is then enhanced by multivariate analysis, a technique we call "Multivariate Auger Feature Imaging", where the distinction between varying sp2 carbon content on a surface is improved.

LanguageEnglish
Pages190-197
Number of pages8
JournalCarbon
Volume107
Early online date30 May 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2016

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Carbon
Graphite
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Imaging techniques
Graphene
Tapes
Oxides
Nanotubes
Oxide films
X rays
Lasers

Bibliographical note

© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Cite this

Barlow, Anders J. ; Popescu, Sinziana ; Artyushkova, Kateryna ; Scott, Oliver ; Sano, Naoko ; Hedley, John ; Cumpson, Peter J. / Chemically specific identification of carbon in XPS imaging using Multivariate Auger Feature Imaging (MAFI). In: Carbon. 2016 ; Vol. 107. pp. 190-197.
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Chemically specific identification of carbon in XPS imaging using Multivariate Auger Feature Imaging (MAFI). / Barlow, Anders J.; Popescu, Sinziana; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Scott, Oliver; Sano, Naoko; Hedley, John; Cumpson, Peter J.

In: Carbon, Vol. 107, 01.10.2016, p. 190-197.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Sano, Naoko

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