Clogging in subsurface-flow treatment wetlands: occurrence and contributing factors

Paul Knowles, Gabriela Dotro*, Jaime Nivala, Joan García

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Clogging is a major operational and maintenance issue associated with the use of subsurface flow wetlands for wastewater treatment, and can ultimately limit the lifetime of the system. This review considers over two decades of accumulated knowledge regarding clogging in both vertical and horizontal subsurface flow treatment wetlands. The various physical, chemical and biological factors responsible for clogging are identified and discussed. The occurrence of clogging is placed into the context of various design and operational parameters such as wastewater characteristics, upstream treatment processes, intermittent or continuous operation, influent distribution, and media type. This information is then used to describe how clogging develops within, and subsequently impacts, common variants of subsurface flow treatment wetland typically used in the U.S., U.K., France and Germany. Comparison of these systems emphasized that both hydraulic loading rate and solids loading rate need to be considered when designing systems to operate robustly, i.e. hydraulic overloading makes horizontal-flow tertiary treatment systems in the U.K. more susceptible to clogging problems than vertical-flow primary treatment systems in France. Future research should focus on elucidating the underlying mechanisms of clogging as they relate to the design, operation, and maintenance of subsurface flow treatment wetlands.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)99-112
Number of pages14
JournalEcological Engineering
Volume37
Issue number2
Early online date23 Aug 2010
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2011

Fingerprint

Wetlands
subsurface flow
wetland
Hydraulics
hydraulics
Wastewater treatment
Wastewater
wastewater
rate

Keywords

  • clog matter
  • constructed wetland
  • design
  • horizontal flow
  • loading rates
  • review
  • vertical flow

Cite this

Knowles, Paul ; Dotro, Gabriela ; Nivala, Jaime ; García, Joan. / Clogging in subsurface-flow treatment wetlands : occurrence and contributing factors. In: Ecological Engineering. 2011 ; Vol. 37, No. 2. pp. 99-112.
@article{93a7327e319b4a0d9d6958226227f141,
title = "Clogging in subsurface-flow treatment wetlands: occurrence and contributing factors",
abstract = "Clogging is a major operational and maintenance issue associated with the use of subsurface flow wetlands for wastewater treatment, and can ultimately limit the lifetime of the system. This review considers over two decades of accumulated knowledge regarding clogging in both vertical and horizontal subsurface flow treatment wetlands. The various physical, chemical and biological factors responsible for clogging are identified and discussed. The occurrence of clogging is placed into the context of various design and operational parameters such as wastewater characteristics, upstream treatment processes, intermittent or continuous operation, influent distribution, and media type. This information is then used to describe how clogging develops within, and subsequently impacts, common variants of subsurface flow treatment wetland typically used in the U.S., U.K., France and Germany. Comparison of these systems emphasized that both hydraulic loading rate and solids loading rate need to be considered when designing systems to operate robustly, i.e. hydraulic overloading makes horizontal-flow tertiary treatment systems in the U.K. more susceptible to clogging problems than vertical-flow primary treatment systems in France. Future research should focus on elucidating the underlying mechanisms of clogging as they relate to the design, operation, and maintenance of subsurface flow treatment wetlands.",
keywords = "clog matter, constructed wetland, design, horizontal flow, loading rates, review, vertical flow",
author = "Paul Knowles and Gabriela Dotro and Jaime Nivala and Joan Garc{\'i}a",
year = "2011",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1016/j.ecoleng.2010.08.005",
language = "English",
volume = "37",
pages = "99--112",
journal = "Ecological Engineering",
issn = "0925-8574",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "2",

}

Clogging in subsurface-flow treatment wetlands : occurrence and contributing factors. / Knowles, Paul; Dotro, Gabriela; Nivala, Jaime; García, Joan.

In: Ecological Engineering, Vol. 37, No. 2, 02.2011, p. 99-112.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Clogging in subsurface-flow treatment wetlands

T2 - occurrence and contributing factors

AU - Knowles, Paul

AU - Dotro, Gabriela

AU - Nivala, Jaime

AU - García, Joan

PY - 2011/2

Y1 - 2011/2

N2 - Clogging is a major operational and maintenance issue associated with the use of subsurface flow wetlands for wastewater treatment, and can ultimately limit the lifetime of the system. This review considers over two decades of accumulated knowledge regarding clogging in both vertical and horizontal subsurface flow treatment wetlands. The various physical, chemical and biological factors responsible for clogging are identified and discussed. The occurrence of clogging is placed into the context of various design and operational parameters such as wastewater characteristics, upstream treatment processes, intermittent or continuous operation, influent distribution, and media type. This information is then used to describe how clogging develops within, and subsequently impacts, common variants of subsurface flow treatment wetland typically used in the U.S., U.K., France and Germany. Comparison of these systems emphasized that both hydraulic loading rate and solids loading rate need to be considered when designing systems to operate robustly, i.e. hydraulic overloading makes horizontal-flow tertiary treatment systems in the U.K. more susceptible to clogging problems than vertical-flow primary treatment systems in France. Future research should focus on elucidating the underlying mechanisms of clogging as they relate to the design, operation, and maintenance of subsurface flow treatment wetlands.

AB - Clogging is a major operational and maintenance issue associated with the use of subsurface flow wetlands for wastewater treatment, and can ultimately limit the lifetime of the system. This review considers over two decades of accumulated knowledge regarding clogging in both vertical and horizontal subsurface flow treatment wetlands. The various physical, chemical and biological factors responsible for clogging are identified and discussed. The occurrence of clogging is placed into the context of various design and operational parameters such as wastewater characteristics, upstream treatment processes, intermittent or continuous operation, influent distribution, and media type. This information is then used to describe how clogging develops within, and subsequently impacts, common variants of subsurface flow treatment wetland typically used in the U.S., U.K., France and Germany. Comparison of these systems emphasized that both hydraulic loading rate and solids loading rate need to be considered when designing systems to operate robustly, i.e. hydraulic overloading makes horizontal-flow tertiary treatment systems in the U.K. more susceptible to clogging problems than vertical-flow primary treatment systems in France. Future research should focus on elucidating the underlying mechanisms of clogging as they relate to the design, operation, and maintenance of subsurface flow treatment wetlands.

KW - clog matter

KW - constructed wetland

KW - design

KW - horizontal flow

KW - loading rates

KW - review

KW - vertical flow

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=78751704191&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2010.08.005

DO - 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2010.08.005

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:78751704191

VL - 37

SP - 99

EP - 112

JO - Ecological Engineering

JF - Ecological Engineering

SN - 0925-8574

IS - 2

ER -