The integration of renewable energy sources and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the existing low-voltage (LV) distribution network at a high penetration level can cause reverse power flow, increased overall energy demand, network congestion, voltage rise/dip, transformer overloading and other operational issues. In this study, these potentially negative impacts caused by increasing penetration of distributed energy resources and PEVs are stochastically quantified based on a real practical 400 V distribution network as a case study. Battery energy storage (BES) is known to be a promising method for peak shaving and to provide network ancillary services. Two types of BES implementations aiming at distinctive charging and discharging targets without communication infrastructure or control centre are proposed and simulated. Optimisation results and potential financial profit of these two BES systems are compared and discussed in detail.
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