Content vs. process in the HRM-performance relationship: an empirical examination

Anastasia A. Katou*, Pawan S. Budhwar, Charmi Patel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study investigates the impact of a human resource management (HRM) system, which integrates both content and process of human resource (HR) practices, on organizational performance, through collective employee reactions. The analysis is based on a sample of 1,250 Greek employees working in 133 public- and private-sector organizations, which operate in the present context of severe financial and economic crises. The findings of the structural equation modeling suggest that content and process are two inseparable faces of an HRM system that help to reveal a comprehensive picture of the HRM-organizational performance relationship. Based on the findings that collective employee reactions mediate the HRM content (i.e., organizational performance relationship) and HRM process moderates the HRM content (i.e., employee reactions relationship), the study has several theoretical and practice implications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)527-544
Number of pages18
JournalHuman Resource Management
Issue number4
Early online date19 Jun 2014
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jul 2014


  • collective employee reactions
  • financial and economic crisis
  • Greece
  • HRM content and process
  • organizational performance


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